Often gases are soluble in a certain amount of water or other liquids.
O₂ gas dissolved in water, and keep aquatic organisms alive.
The solubility of gases in a liquid is expressed by Absorption Coefficient.
According to scientist Bunsen, the volume of a gas at normal temperature and pressure, dissolved in a unit volume of solvent at a given temperature and an atmospheric pressure, is called Absorption Coefficient.
The following factors affect the Solubility of Gases in Liquids.
(i) Nature Of Gas
(ii) Nature Of Solvent
(iii) Effect Of Temperature
(iv) Effect Of Pressure
That gases which react with the solvent to form compounds or ionize in the solvent are more soluble in solvent.
Those gases which do not react with solvent to form compounds, are less soluble in liquids.
For example, gases like H₂, O₂ and N₂ are less soluble in liquids.
The gases which have higher Absorption Coefficient are more soluble.
The Absorption Coefficient of He is 0.009 meaning 0.009 ml at 0 °C temperature and 1 atmospheric pressure, He gas dissolves in 1 ml of water at 20 °C temperature to form a saturated solution.